# PHYS - Physics

## PHYS1 Physics for Everyone

Explores some of the great topics in classical and modern physics, including quantum mechanics and relativity, and the connections to a broad range of inquiry, from daily life to cosmology. Math, mainly algebra, is used in a way that is completely accessible to everyone. (Formerly Conceptual Physics).

### Credits

5

## PHYS2 Elementary Physics of Energy

The physics of energy developed in a course accessible to non-science majors as well as science majors. Fundamental principles and elementary calculations, at the level of basic algebra, developed and applied to the understanding of the physics of energy. Topics include fossil fuels, renewable energy, solar cells and waste energy, waste-energy recovery, nuclear power, and global greenhouse effects.

### Credits

5

## PHYS5A Introduction to Physics I

Elementary mechanics. Vectors, Newton's laws, inverse square force laws, work and energy, conservation of momentum and energy, and oscillations.

### Credits

5

## PHYS5B Introduction to Physics II

A continuation of 5A. Wave motion in matter, including sound waves. Geometrical optics, interference and polarization, statics and dynamics of fluids.

### Credits

5

## PHYS5C Introduction to Physics III

Introduction to electricity and magnetism. Electromagnetic radiation, Maxwell's equations.

### Credits

5

## PHYS5D Introduction to Physics IV

Introduces temperature, heat, thermal conductivity, diffusion, ideal gases, laws of thermodynamics, heat engines, and kinetic theory. Introduces the special theory of relativity and the equivalence principle. Includes the photoelectric effect, the Compton effect, matter waves, atomic spectra, and the Bohr model.

### Credits

5

## PHYS5L Introduction to Physics Laboratory

Laboratory sequence illustrating topics covered in course 5A. One three-hour laboratory session per week.

### Credits

1

## PHYS5M Introduction to Physics Laboratory

Laboratory sequence illustrating topics covered in course 5B. One three-hour laboratory session per week.

### Credits

1

## PHYS5N Introduction to Physics Laboratory

Laboratory sequence illustrating topics covered in course 5C. One three-hour laboratory session per week.

### Credits

1

## PHYS6A Introductory Physics I

Elementary mechanics. Vectors, Newton's laws, inverse square force laws, work and energy, conservation of momentum and energy, and oscillations.

### Credits

5

## PHYS6B Introductory Physics II

A continuation of 6A. Geometric optics; statics and dynamics of fluids; introduction to thermodynamics, including temperature, heat, thermal conductivity, and molecular motion; wave motion in matter, including sound waves.

### Credits

5

## PHYS6C Introductory Physics III

Introduction to electricity and magnetism. Elementary circuits; Maxwell's equations; electromagnetic radiation; interference and polarization of light.

### Credits

5

## PHYS6L Introductory Physics Laboratory

Laboratory sequence illustrating topics covered in course 6A. One three-hour laboratory session per week.

### Credits

1

## PHYS6M Introductory Physics Laboratory

Laboratory sequence illustrating topics covered in course 6B. One three-hour laboratory session per week.

### Credits

1

## PHYS6N Introductory Physics Laboratory

Laboratory sequence illustrating topics covered in course 6C. One three-hour laboratory session per week.

### Credits

1

## PHYS7A Elementary Physics I

Examines elementary mechanics, including vectors, kinematics, Newton's laws, work and energy, conservation of momentum and energy, fluid motion, and temperature and heat.

### Credits

5

## PHYS7B Elementary Physics II

Examines elementary wave motion, light polarization, reflection and refraction; elementary electricity, including electric charge, Coulomb's Law,and electric field and potential; electrostatic energy, currents, conductors, resistance, and Ohm's Law; and magnetic fields, inductors, and circuits.

### Credits

5

## PHYS7L Elementary Physics Laboratory

Laboratory sequence illustrating topics covered in course 7A. One three-hour laboratory session per week.

### Credits

1

## PHYS11 The Physicist in Industry

One two-hour meeting per week. Subjects include roles of the physicist in industry, the business environment in a technical company, economic considerations, job hunting, and discussions with physicists with industrial experience. Enrollment by permission of instructor. Priority given to applied physics upper-division students; other majors if space available.

### Credits

2

## PHYS80U Physics and Psychophysics of Music

Fundamental theory of vibration, sound waves, sound propagation, diffraction, and interference. Free, coupled, and driven oscillations. Resonance phenomena and modes of oscillation. Fourier's theorem. Anatomy and psychophysics of the ear. Musical scales and intervals. Nature of plucked and bowed strings; guitar, violin, piano. Woodwind and brass instruments. Architectural acoustics. High school algebra and basic knowledge of musical notation recommended.

### Credits

5

## PHYS99 Tutorial

Students submit petition to sponsoring agency.

### Credits

5

## PHYS102 Modern Physics

Topics in quantum physics including the Schrodinger equation; angular momentum and spin; the Pauli exclusion principle; and quantum statistics. Applications in multi-electron atoms and molecules, and in solid-state, nuclear, and particle physics.

### Credits

5

## PHYS105 Mechanics

Particle dynamics in one, two, and three dimensions. Conservation laws. Small oscillations, Fourier series and Fourier integral solutions. Phase diagrams and nonlinear motions, Lagrange's equations, and Hamiltonian dynamics.

### Credits

5

## PHYS110A Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics

Examines electrostatics, including the electric field, potential, solutions to Laplace's and Poisson's equations, and work and energy; electricity in matter (conductors, dielectrics); magnetostatics, including the magnetic field and vector potential, Ampere's and Faraday's laws; and magnetism in matter; Maxwell's equations; and conservation laws and gauge invariance.

### Credits

5

## PHYS110B Electricity, Magnetism, and Optics

Examines electromagnetic waves, including absorption and dispersion, reflection and transmission, and wave guides; time-dependent vector and scalar potentials and application to radiation of charges and antennae; and electrodynamics and relativity.

### Credits

5

## PHYS112 Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics

Consequences of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, elementary statistical mechanics, thermodynamics of irreversible processes.

### Credits

5

## PHYS115 Computational Physics

This course will apply efficient numerical methods to the solutions of problems in the physical sciences which are otherwise intractable. Examples will be drawn from classical mechanics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and electrodynamics. Students will apply a high-level programming language, such as Mathematica, to the solution of physical problems and develop appropriate error and stability estimates.

### Credits

5

## PHYS116A Mathematical Methods in Physics

Infinite series, topics in linear algebra including vector spaces, matrices and determinants, systems of linear equations, eigenvalue problems and matrix diagonalization, tensor algebra, and ordinary differential equations.

### Credits

5

## PHYS116B Mathematical Methods in Physics

Complex functions, complex analysis, asymptotic series and expansions, special functions defined by integrals, calculus of variations, and probability, and statistics.

### Credits

5

## PHYS116C Mathematical Methods in Physics

Fourier series and transforms, Dirac-delta function, Green's functions, series solutions of ordinary equations, Legendre polynomials, Bessel functions, sets of orthogonal functions, and partial differential equations.

### Credits

5

## PHYS120 Polymer Physics

Statistical properties polymers; scaling behavior, fractal dimensions; random walks, self avoidance; single chains and concentrated solutions; dynamics and topological effects in melts; polymer networks; sol-gel transitions; polymer blends; application to biological systems; computer simulations will demonstrate much of the above. Students cannot receive credit for this course and course 240.

### Credits

5

## PHYS129 Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics

The standard model of particle physics; general relativistic cosmology; the early universe and Big Bang nucleosynthesis; dark matter and structure formation; formation of heavy elements in stars and supernovae; neutrino oscillations; high-energy astrophysics: cosmic rays and gamma-ray astronomy. (Formerly Nuclear and Particle Physics.)

### Credits

5

## PHYS133 Intermediate Laboratory

Demonstration of phenomena of classical and modern physics. Development of a familiarity with experimental methods. Special experimental projects may be undertaken by students in this laboratory.

### Credits

5

## PHYS134 Physics Advanced Laboratory

Individual experimental investigations of basic phenomena in atomic, nuclear, and solid state physics.

### Credits

5

## PHYS135 Astrophysics Advanced Laboratory

Introduction to the techniques of modern observational astrophysics at optical and radio wavelengths through hands-on experiments. Offered in some academic years as a multiple-term course: 135A in fall and 135B in winter, depending on astronomical conditions.

### Credits

5

## PHYS135A Astrophysics Advanced Laboratory

Introduction to techniques of modern observational astrophysics at optical and radio wavelengths through hands-on experiments. Intended primarily for juniors and seniors majoring or minoring in astrophysics. Offered in some academic years as single-term course 135 in fall, depending on astronomical conditions.

### Credits

3

## PHYS135B Astrophysics Advanced Laboratory

Introduction to techniques of modern observational astrophysics at optical and radio wavelengths through hands-on experiments. Intended primarily for juniors and seniors majoring or minoring in astrophysics. Offered in some academic years as single-term course 135 in fall, depending on astronomical conditions.

### Credits

2

## PHYS139A Quantum Mechanics I

Basic principles and mathematical techniques of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics: Schrodinger equation and Dirac notation; one-dimensional systems, including the free particle and harmonic oscillator; three-dimensional problems with spherical symmetry; angular momentum; hydrogen atom; spin; identical particles and degenerate gases. (Formerly Quantum Mechanics.)

### Credits

5

## PHYS139B Quantum Mechanics II

Approximation methods in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics: time-independent perturbation theory (non-degenerate and degenerate) and addition of angular momenta; variational methods; the WKB approximation; time-dependent perturbation theory and radiation theory; scattering theory. (Formerly Quantum Mechanics.)

### Credits

5

## PHYS143 Supervised Teaching

Supervised tutoring in selected introductory courses. Students should have completed course 101A and 101B as preparation. Students submit petition to sponsoring agency.

### Credits

2

## PHYS150 Quantum Computing

Basic concepts in quantum mechanics including quantum states, measurements, operators, entanglement, entanglement entropy, "no cloning" theorem, and density matrices. Classical gates, reversible computing, quantum gates. Several quantum algorithms including Deutsch's algorithm, Simon's algorithm Shor's algorithm and the Grover algorithm. Quantum error correction. Adiabatic quantum computing.

### Credits

5

## PHYS155 Solid State Physics

Interatomic forces and crystal structure, diffraction, lattice vibrations, free electron model, energy bands, semiconductor theory and devices, optical properties, magnetism, magnetic resonance, superconductivity.

### Credits

5

## PHYS156 Applications of Solid State Physics

Emphasizes the application of condensed matter physics to a variety of situations. Examples chosen from subfields such as semiconductor physics, lasers, superconductivity, low temperature physics, magnetism, and defects in crystals.

### Credits

5

## PHYS160 Practical Electronics

Provides a practical knowledge of electronics that experimentalists generally need in research. The course assumes no previous knowledge of electronics and progresses according to the interest and ability of the class. Based on weekly lectures. However, with the aid of the instructor, the students are expected to learn mainly through the design, construction, and debugging of electronics projects. Students are billed a materials fee.

### Credits

5

## PHYS171 General Relativity, Black Holes, and Cosmology

Special relativity is reviewed. Curved space-time, including the metric and geodesics, are illustrated with simple examples. The Einstein equations are solved for cases of high symmetry. Black-hole physics and cosmology are discussed, including recent developments.

### Credits

5

## PHYS180 Biophysics

Physical principles and techniques used in biology: X-ray diffraction; nuclear magnetic resonance; statistics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of macromolecules; viscosity and diffusion; DNA/RNA pairing; electrophoresis; physics of enzymes; biological energy conversion; optical tweezers.

### Credits

5

## PHYS182 Scientific Communication for Physicists

Explores the communication of physics to a wide range of audiences, including writing articles from the popular to the peer-reviewed level; critically analyzing the communication of scientific discoveries in the media; structuring the physics senior thesis; writing grant applications; assembling a personal statement for job and graduate school application; and assembling and critiquing oral presentations.

### Credits

5

## PHYS191 Teaching Practicum

Designed to provide upper-division undergraduates with an opportunity to work with students in lower division courses, leading discussions, reading and marking submissions, and assisting in the planning and teaching of a course. Prerequisite(s): excellent performance in major courses; instructor approval required; enrollment restricted to senior physics majors.

### Credits

5

## PHYS192 Directed Student Teaching

Teaching of a lower-division seminar under faculty supervision. (See course 42.) Prerequisite(s): upper-division standing; submission of a proposal supported by a faculty member willing to supervise.

### Credits

5

## PHYS199 Tutorial

Students submit petition to sponsoring agency.

### Credits

5

## PHYS199F Tutorial

Tutorial

### Credits

2

## PHYS202 Introduction to Teaching in Physics

A practical introduction to working as a teaching assistant for undergraduate classes in physics, including both teaching laboratories and running discussion sections. The training includes topics in classroom climate and inclusivity, active learning, motivating students, office hours, information technology, grading, communication with the instructor, and handling difficult situations. Students engaged in teaching in the same quarter are encouraged to apply the lessons in their classes and return with feedback to be discussed. Required course for first year graduate students.

### Credits

1

## PHYS205 Introduction to Research in Physics

Introduction to current research opportunities at UCSC for graduate students. Topics include: elementary particle physics, condensed matter and solid state physics, high energy astrophysics, biophysics, and cosmology. Selected topics related to career development may also be included.

### Credits

2

## PHYS210 Classical Mechanics

Generalized coordinates, calculus of variations, Lagrange's equations with constraints, Hamilton's equations, applications to particle dynamics including charged particles in an electromagnetic field, applications to continuum mechanics including fluids and electromagnetic fields, introduction to nonlinear dynamics.

### Credits

5

## PHYS212 Electromagnetism I

Electrostatics and magnetostatics, boundary value problems with spherical and cylindrical symmetry, multipole expansion, dielectric media, magnetic materials, electromagnetic properties of materials, time-varying electromagnetic fields, Maxwell's equations, conservation laws, plane electromagnetic waves and propagation, waveguides and resonant cavities.

### Credits

5

## PHYS214 Electromagnetism II

Lorentz covariant formulation of Maxwell's equations, dynamics of relativistic charged particles and electromagnetic fields, scattering and diffraction. Topics in classical radiation theory: simple radiating systems radiation by moving charges, multipole radiation, synchrotron radiation, Cerenkov radiation, bremsstrahlung and radiation damping.

### Credits

5

## PHYS215 Introduction to Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

Mathematic introduction; fundamental postulates; time evolution operator, including the Heisenberg and Schrodinger pictures; simple harmonic oscillator and coherent states; one-dimensional scattering theory, including S-matrix resonant phenomena; two-state systems, including magnetic resonance; symmetries, including rotation group, spin, and the Wigner-Eckart theorem; rotationally invariant problems, including the hydrogen atom; gauge invariance, including Landau levels; introduction to path integral.

### Credits

5

## PHYS216 Advanced Topics in Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics

Approximate methods: time-independent perturbation theory, variational principle, time-dependent perturbation theory; three-dimensional scattering theory; identical particles; permutation symmetry and exchange degeneracy, anti-symmetric and symmetric states; many-body systems and self-consistent fields: variational calculations; second quantized formalism, including Fock spaces/number representation, field operators and Green functions; applications: electron gas; quantization of the electromagnetic field and interaction of radiation with matter: absorption, emission, scattering, photoelectric effect, and lifetimes.

### Credits

5

## PHYS217 Quantum Field Theory I

Lorentz invariance in quantum theory, Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations, the relativistic hydrogen atom, Green functions and canonical approach to field theory, quantum electrodynamics, Feynman diagrams for scattering processes, symmetries and Ward identities. Students learn to perform calculations of scattering and decay of particles in field theory.

### Credits

5

## PHYS218 Quantum Field Theory II

Path integral approach to quantum field theory. Theory of renormalization and the renormalization group, introduction to gauge theories and spontaneously broken field theories. Applications to the standard model of strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions.

### Credits

5

## PHYS219 Statistical Physics

The basic laws of thermodynamics, entropy, thermodynamic potentials, kinetic theory of gases, quantum and classical statistical mechanics, virial expansion, linear response theory. Applications in condensed matter physics.

### Credits

5

## PHYS220 Theory of Many-Body Physics

Finite temperature Green functions, Feynman diagrams, Dyson equation, linked cluster theorem, Kubo formula for electrical conductivity, electron gas, random phase approximation, Fermi surfaces, Landau fermi liquid theory, electron phonon coupling, Migdal's theorem, superconductivity.

### Credits

5

## PHYS221A Introduction to Particle Physics I

First quarter of a two-quarter graduate level introduction to particle physics, including the following topics: discrete symmetries, quark model, particle classification, masses and magnetic moments, passage of radiation through matter, detector technology, accelerator physics, Feynman calculus, and electron-positron annihilation.

### Credits

5

## PHYS221B Introduction to Particle Physics II

Second quarter of a two-quarter graduate level introduction to particle physics, including the following topics: nucleon structure, weak interactions and the Standard Model, neutrino oscillation, quantum chromodynamics, CP violation, and a tour of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.

### Credits

5

## PHYS222 Quantum Field Theory III

Focuses on the theoretical underpinnings of the standard model, including the spontaneous symmetry breaking, the renormalization group, the operator product expansion, and precision tests of the Standard Model.

### Credits

5

## PHYS224 Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology

Particle physics and cosmology of the very early universe: thermodynamics and thermal history; out-of-equilibrium phenomena (e.g., WIMPs freeze-out, neutrino cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, recombination); baryogenesis; inflation; topological defects. High-energy astrophysical processes: overview of cosmic ray and gamma ray astrophysics; radiative and inelastic processes; astroparticle acceleration mechanisms; magnetic fields and cosmic ray transport; radiation-energy density of the universe; ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays; dark-matter models; and detection techniques. (Formerly Origin and Evolution of the Universe.)

### Credits

5

## PHYS226 General Relativity

Develops the formalism of Einstein's general relativity, including solar system tests, gravitational waves, cosmology, and black holes.

### Credits

5

## PHYS231 Introduction to Condensed Matter Physics

Crystal structures, reciprocal lattice, crystal bonding, phonons (including specific heat), band theory of electrons, free electron model, electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, transport theory.

### Credits

5

## PHYS232 Condensed Matter Physics

Magnetism (para, ferro, anti-ferro, ferri), spin waves, superconductivity, introduction to semiconductors.

### Credits

5

## PHYS233 Advanced Condensed Matter Physics

A special topics course which includes areas of current interest in condensed matter physics. Possible topics include superconductivity, phase transitions, renormalization group, disordered systems, surface phenomena, magnetic resonance, and spectroscopy.

### Credits

5

## PHYS234 Soft Condensed Matter Physics

A selection of topics from: liquid crystals, biological systems, renormalization group and critical phenomena, stochastic processes, Langevin and Fokker Planck equations, hydrodynamic theories, granular materials, glasses, quasicrystals.

### Credits

5

## PHYS240 Polymer Physics

Statistical properties polymers. Scaling behavior, fractal dimensions. Random walks, self avoidance. Single chains and concentrated solutions. Dynamics and topological effects in melts. Polymer networks. Sol-gel transitions. Polymer blends. Application to biological systems. Computer simulations demonstrating much of the above. Students cannot receive credit for this course and course 120.

### Credits

5

## PHYS242 Computational Physics

This course will apply efficient numerical methods to the solution of problems in the physical sciences which are otherwise intractable. Examples will be drawn from classical mechanics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, and electrodynamics. Students will apply a high-level programming language such as Mathematica to the solution of physical problems and will develop appropriate error and stability estimates.

### Credits

5

## PHYS251 Group Theory and Modern Physics

Finite and continuous groups, group representation theory, the symmetric group and Young tableaux, Lie groups and Lie algebras, irreducible representations of Lie algebras by tensor methods, unitary groups in particle physics, Dynkin diagrams, Lorentz and Poincaré groups.

### Credits

5

## PHYS290 Special Topics

A series of lectures on various topics of current interest in physics at UC Santa Cruz.

### Credits

5

## PHYS291A Cosmology

Intensive research seminar on cosmology and related topics in astrophysics: nature of dark matter; origin of cosmological inhomogeneities and other initial conditions of the big bang; origin and evolution of galaxies and large scale structure in the universe.

### Credits

2

## PHYS291B X-rays and Magnetism

Research seminar on x-ray studies of the properties and behavior of magnetic materials. Topics include: the underlying physical interactions, experimental techniques, and selected examples from current research. This course includes a visit to the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley.

### Credits

2

## PHYS291C Developments in Theoretical Particle Physics

Seminar on the current literature of elementary particle physics, ranging from strong and weak interaction phenomenology to Higgs physics, supersymmetry, and superstring theory. Students may present their own research results.

### Credits

2

## PHYS291D Experimental High-Energy Collider Physics

Seminar on current results in experimental high-energy particle physics. Topics follow recently published results, including design of experiments, development of particle detector technology, and experimental results from new particle searches, quantum chromodynamics, and properties of heavy flavor quarks.

### Credits

2

## PHYS291E Applied Physics

Intensive research seminar on applied physics and related topics in materials science, including semiconductor devices, optoelectronics, molecular electronics, magnetic materials, nanotechnology, biosensors, and medical physics. Students may present their own research results.

### Credits

2

## PHYS291F Experimental High-Energy and Particle Astrophysics Seminar

Survey of current research in experimental high-energy and particle astrophysics. Recent observations and development in instrumentation for x-rays, gamma rays, and neutrinos, and evidence for dark matter and other new particles. Students lead discussion of recent papers.

### Credits

2

## PHYS291G Condensed Matter Physics Research Seminar

Weekly seminar series covering topics of current interest in condensed matter physics. Local and external speakers discuss their work.

### Credits

2

## PHYS292 Seminar

Weekly seminar attended by faculty and graduate students. Directed at all physics graduate students who have not taken and passed the qualifying examination for the Ph.D. program.

### Credits

0

## PHYS292F Seminar

Seminar

### Credits

2

## PHYS297A Independent Study

Enrollment restricted to graduate students only, except by permission of instructor.

### Credits

5

## PHYS297B Independent Study

Enrollment restricted to graduate students only, except by permission of instructor.

### Credits

10

## PHYS297C Independent Study

Enrollment restricted to graduate students only, except by permission of instructor.

### Credits

15

## PHYS298 Theoretical and Experimental Research Project

Enrollment restricted to graduate students only, except by permission of instructor.

### Credits

5

## PHYS299A Thesis Research

Enrollment restricted to graduate students only, except by permission of instructor.

### Credits

5

## PHYS299B Thesis Research

Enrollment restricted to graduate students only, except by permission of instructor.

### Credits

10

## PHYS299C Thesis Research

Enrollment restricted to graduate students only, except by permission of instructor.

### Credits

15